Characteristics of the current political regime in Kazakhstan based on political analysts’ estimation
In the article different perspectives and expert opinions about the political regime in Kazakhstan are considered and analyzed. The assessment of the political regime in the country is made.
Key words: political regime, Kazakhstan, president, party system, analysts, ruling elite
Speaking about the assessment of the current political regime in Kazakhstan, one can’t find any common point of view on this subject. In fact, the position on this issue is far from being homogeneous. But precisely because of this, it is possible to analyze different perspectives and expert opinions, and then imagine a general characteristic of the political process in the country at the moment.
Let’s start with the Historical retrospective. At various times, political analysts commented on the events in Kazakhstan and its political system differently. Some of them were quite sharp, criticizing the current policy, and some had the opposite view. Still, most of the specialists took a neutral position. They considered Kazakhstan as an independent subject of international relations, developing in its own way, trying to establish a democratic society and the statehood .
As for the present days, it is necessary to note that the opinions about Kazakhstan political regime are more heterogeneous. It would be reasonable to start with the basic characteristics of the main law of the state, namely the Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan.
Political scientists of this country, which is largely based on patriotism, have developed rather popular opinion that thanks to the Constitution Kazakhstan established itself as a full and responsible member of the international community fulfilling the important functions of maintaining geopolitical stability and international security in the region. This idea can be followed in one of the “Kazakhstan-Spectrum” magazine articles, published by the Kazakhstan Institute for Strategic Studies under the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan (KazISS). The article claims that thanks to the Constitution Kazakhstan preserved and ensured internal stability, formed a reliable social development base and has created competitive economy. In this case, to support this idea the authors remind the readers about Kazakhstan's chairmanship in the OSCE and the OIC .
The argument about the basic law of the country prompts the idea that the main and decisive advantage of the political regime in Kazakhstan, which seems to be legitimate for the population, is the maintenance of political stability in the transition period.
It would be just to conclude that this periodical has a clear prostate orientation. This idea can also be proved by another example.
Further on it is appropriate to consider the Kazakhstan party system. As it is indicated in the country's Constitution, the basic functions of the parties in the political system of Kazakhstan are reflected in the connection between civilians and the state, in the selection of candidates and the nomination of politicians, in their influence on the political process, in the achievement of social integration .
It is common knowledge that there are seven officially registered political parties in the country. But only one of them is actually at the helm (pro-presidential party Nur Otan). It is noteworthy to read the explanations of its dominance made by the authors of “Kazakhstan-Spectrum” magazine.
Naturally enough this magazine doesn’t call such a political system undemocratic. It gives only the positive aspects of this phenomenon. Namely:
• a dominant party system provides political stability for a long time.
• it allows to carry out reforms, to mobilize the population.
• the dominant political player (actor) combines various elites (administrative, economic) .
This fact proves transparently that this publication is biased, and it leads to the conclusion that it is impossible to consider the Institute's researche to be objective enough.
Still, many analysts do not share such a positive assessment of current political regime in Kazakhstan. The greatest criticism, as expected, is expressed by oppositional Kazakhstani politicians, who are mostly in an exile.
Thus, a well-known analyst on Central Asia, Azhdar Kurtov believes that at the moment the norms of the Constitution of Kazakhstan are blatantly at odds with the proclaimed principle of separation of powers. Ajdar Kurtov supposes that Kazakhstan has only one politician, and it is none other than Nazarbayev. The other ones are just pawns moved on the chessboard. This is, the author states, the weakness of the system of power that exists in Kazakhstan .
Mukhtar Ablyazov (Kazakh and Russian businessman, former Energy, Industry and Trade Minister of Kazakhstan) gives his own but similar assessment of the political regime in the country. He connects all regime flaws with the criminal activities of President Nursultan Nazarbayev. “This is a mafia regime - said Mukhtar Ablyazov. - The head of state does not develop the country within the laws. He creates his own rules. The rules, which he believes are fair” .
And finally, it is necessary to review the expert’s opinion about the ruling elite of the country and the State's personnel policy. There are many problems in modern personnel policy of Kazakhstan (like in other countries) that can hinder the process of further development and improvement of its competitiveness on the international arena. Even pro-government researchers pay attention to this fact. For instance, in one of its articles KazISS refers to the practice of “command movements” that is deeply rooted in the administrative sector. The head of the civil service, moving up the hierarchy, brings his team with him up. More often these people are not really professionals but are loyal to their superior, kinship or fraternity .
But the most severe criticism to the state of affairs was expressed by Kazakh politician, the former son-in-law of the President Nursultan Nazarbaev, Rakhat Aliyev. In his work “The Godfather-in- Law” he proclaims that Nazarbayev's personnel policy has as its aim to consistently and regularly “squeeze out” all those who could compete with him .
With all this facts, it is possible to conclude that there is no consensus on the fair presentation of the political regime in the Republic of Kazakhstan among political scientists. But due to the strengthening of authoritarian tendencies in its political life, the amount of criticism towards the existing regime in the country, and especially the institute of presidency, is increasing. According to the experts Kazakhstan now is strengthening non-democratic model of governance that in turn affects the image and the country on the international political arena.
Yet, analysts still hope that Kazakhstan will be able to return to democratic traditions. This can be done only if the authorities pay attention to the researchers’ competent opinions, and choose the most appropriate way of further development of the state.
Список использованной литературы
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Al-Tayasne Y. N.
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