Comparative analysis of World Winter Universiades and Olympic Winter Games
Russian State University of Physical Education Sport, Youth and Tourism, Russia The history of World Universiades is not thoroughly covered in the national historiography. Due to the fact that student sports is an integral part of International Sport Movement, and can be considered as an important training stage for the Olympic Games, analysis of this issue is quite actual. The purpose of this scientific search is to examine and compare changes in the Olympic Winter Games Programme and The Programme of International Winter Universiades.
The following objectives were outlined:
1. Comparative analysis of the programme of World Winter Universiades and Olympic Winter Games;
2. Comparative analysis of the amount of competitors of World Winter Universiades and Olympic Winter Games;
3. Comparative analysis of countries-participants of World Winter Universiades and Olympic Winter Games.
The following methods were applied:
1. Historical analysis of literature sources and statistic information and their generalization;
2. Comparison and correlation.
It is the first scientific comparison analysis of World Winter Universiades and Olympic Winter Games in several aspects in national historiography. Practical value. Analysis and conclusions based on the results of the research may be used as additional basis for better understanding of development of student sport and the role of World Student Games as an important stage in the process of preparation for Olympic Winter Games. Our research is limited by chronological frames of which are established as - starting back in 1960 – when VIII Olympic Winter Games took place – and till present time.
During past 50 years the amount of sports in the programme of the International Winter Universiades grew for 240%. Nowadays the program of the International Winter Universiades is almost similar to the Olympic Winter Games program. World Winter Universiades are considered to be an important stage for Olympic Winter Games and World Winter Universiades.
The data on the graphic, reflecting the amount of sports presented in Olympic Winter Games, proves that the amount of these sports tend to increase, with its peak in 1998 (Nagano, XVIII Olympic Winter Games). This year curling, women hockey and snowboard were included. Thereby the amount of sports have grown twice since 1960 – from 4 to 7. This can be explained by the fact that even though the program has had biathlon for men speed skating competition for women added, Skvo-Valley did not have tracks for bobsledding and lugging built, which resulted with cutting the amount of sports.
Since 1998 the amount of sports - 7 and this figure remains the same until 2006. Comparison analysis of sports in the program for International Winter Universiades on the graphic shows definite decrease of the index in 1975, which caused by the fact that VIII Winter Universiade was held in Liviggno, Italy, and the program included mountain skiing and ski-racing. Starting 1991 and till present time a serious increase of the amount of sports is noted.
In accordance with the Constitution of Federation of International Student Universiades (FISU), the program of Universiades consists of 10 obligatory sports and sports, which can be added by the competition host-country – not more than 3.
Analysis of the amount of participants of Olympic Winter Games and International Universiades shows that growth index of the amount of competitors of the International Universiades is not as stabile as the one for Olympic Games. While comparing the highest index points of the amount of competitors of the mentioned competitions, we note that Olympic Games have a priority: over 2766 people in Vancouver versus 1935 at the International Universiade in Tavrizio, Italy.
Even though there is general growth of the indexes outlined in the graphic, there were still several recessions there. They were in 1972 and 1980. Olympic Games of the 1972 were the first Olympic Winter Games, which were held in Asia. Besides they followed after there was a decision of the Head of IOC Every Brendidge to refuse professional sportsmen to participate in the Games. But it actually was applicable to only one skier – Karl Shranc (acting Olympic champion at that moment) and Canadian hockey team.
In 1980 Taiwan refused to be a part of China team and has become – and now is the only country – which ignores the Olympic Games. In the following years increase of the amount of sports and widening of the geography of the Games ended up with increase of the amount of competitors.
Against the background the leap of the amount of participants of the XVI Olympic Games. This can be explained by the widening of the competition program for the accounts of short-track, freestyle and biathlon for women. The leap was as well caused by the increase of the disciplines, as the program has included curling, women hockey, snowboarding, skeleton, Alpine combination.
A certain decrease took place in 1975, which was caused by the fact that VIII Winter Universiade was held as a International Universities Skiing Competition. However, there were 191 sportsmen from 15 countries of the world. Beginning 1989 there is a tendency to the increasea number of participants. The most visible one took place in 2003, which is understood as International Winter Universiade was considered a pre-stage for the Olympic Winter Games in Tourin. Athlets from 50 countries were expected in Tavrizio, but Academic Sport Association of Israel cancelled their participation in the Universiade-2003 without explaining any reasons.
Analysis of the amount of countries-participants shows that this amount has permanent tendency to growth. It is also important to outline that similar to the Olympic Games, only countries approved FISU since 1959. This graphic shows us smooth growth of the amount of countries-participants. One of the reasons – is that in late 80s – early 90s, a lot of new countries have become independent states (USSR, Yugoslavia). The maximum number of countries-partisipants was registered at the Olympic Winter Games in 2006 – 88 countries. The growth since 1960 (16 countries) and 2009 (44 countries) was equal to 275%. The latest Winter Universiade had highest number of countries-participants. The record high level was set at Tourin, Italy in 2007 – 55 countries. If comparing the number of participants of the Olympic Games and International Universiades – the differences is 30%. Also, increase of participants of the Olympics is more stabile.
Some Vancouver and Tourine Olympic Games champions participated in Universiades before the Olympics. They are: biathlonists – Anna Bogaliy-Titovec (2001), Olga Zaitseva (2001), Ivan Cherezov (2001, 2003); skiing – Evgeniya Medvedeva-Arbuzova (2001), Natalia Baranova-Masalkina (1997), Evgeniya Medvedeva (2001), figure-skating Irina Slutskaya (1999), curling – Yana Nekrasova, Kira Ezeh, Olga Zharikova – participants of Winter Universiade of 2003.
Melnikova N., Klimenko D.
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