30.04.2020 20:55

# Ratio of aerobic and anaerobic components and their influence on working capacity of middle distance runners

Introduction. Successful participation of athletes in the Russian and international competitions in many respects depends on quality of preparation. It is determined by the used methods, means and regimen of training loads which should be optimum in complete system of sports training. The modern level of achievements in sport largely depends on abilities of an organism of an athlete and his individuals features. In this connection among the variety of parameters of individual abilities of athletes‘ organism studying of maximal aerobic and anaerobic abilities of 800 and 1500 meters runners and it‘s connection with competitive results big interest represents.

Knowledge which is received as a result of scientific research, is especially necessary for realization of training projects in preparation in such events where aerobic and anaerobic metabolism is involved in the certain ratio. According to the received previous results (Ward Smith, 1985, Peronnet and Thibault, 1989, Lacour, 1990, Weyand, 1993, Hill, 1999, Spender and Gastin, 2001) we have revealed, that variose of a ratio of aerobic and anaerobic parameters is essential (table 1). That leads to dissociation of the opinions of coaches, scientists and athletes in technology of sports training. Hence, correct definition of power components in middle distances running is important for the general understanding of mechanisms providing high capacity for work. That is why we decided to carry out our research of aerobic and anaerobic abilities of 800 and 1500 meters runners with the help of veloergometry.

Table 1

Ratio of aerobic and anaerobic productivity in 800 and 1500 m

Running according to various authors

Authors of researches Sex Distance, m

Time, s.

Aerobic making in %

Anaerobic making in %

Means of measurement

Weyand (1993) M 1500 – 84 16 Treadmill

Spenser and

Gastin (2001) М 1500 235 84 16 Treadmill

Hill (1999) М 1500 245 80 20 Run, lactate

Di Prampero (1993) М 1500 209 78 22 Math. mod

Peronnet and

Thibault (1989) М 1500 209 76 24 Math. mod

Ward Smith (1985) М 1500 218 72 28 Math. mod

Weyand (1993) F 1500 – 87 13 Treadmill

Hill (1999) F 1500 308 83 17 Run, lactate

Weyand (1993) М 800 – 76 24 Treadmill

Spenser and

Gastin (2001) М 800 113 66 34 Treadmill

Di Prampero (1993) М 800 102 62 38 Math. mod

Craid and

Morgan (1998) М 800 115 61 39 Treadmill

Lacour (1990) М 800 – 59 41 Run, lactate

Hill (1999) М 800 120 58 42 Run, lactate

Peronnet and

Thibault (1989) М 800 102 57 43 Math. mod

Ward Smith (1985) М 800 105 52 48 Math. mod

Weyand (1993) F 800 - 81 19 Treadmill

Hill (1999) F 800 145 62 48 Run, lactate

Results submitted in the table are received either by method of mathematical modelling, or measurement of consumption of oxygen in an operating time on treadmill. Anaerobic mechanism was defined by deficiency of oxygen or on a level of blood lactate. The aim of our research is revealing of the factors which determine results in middle distances running (800 and 1500 meters). Basic tasks of present researches are studying of maximal aerobic and anaerobic abilities of 800 and 1500 meters runners and their connection with competitions results.

Methods of research. In this part of the work we used the following ergometric methods of estimation of aerobic and anaerobic abilities of athletes: 1. Anaerobic abilities of athletes were estimated under Wingate test. Loading of maximal anaerobic capacity was carried out on veloergometre Monark Ergomedic 894E. 2. Aerobic abilities of athletes were estimated with the help of the test "WHO" and "YMCA".

Results and discussion. Two groups were taken for carrying out of aerobic testing. The first group included middle distances runners (800 и 1500 m.). The second one included athletes whose training process was not mainly directed on development of anaerobic endurance. On the results of two tests "YMCA" and "WHO" the most informative and reliable test of aerobic testing of runners has been revealed.

It is possible to say, that the test "YMCA" is simple for runners therefore they do not achieve due level of frequencies of heart rate. I.e. frequency of heart rate of athletes during testing at all stages with various loading is at practically identical level with the difference from 4 till 7 beats a minute. It follows, that the loading is too low for the given contingent of examinees. Therefore calculation of the maximal consumption of oxygen with the help of the test "YMCA" is not quite informative.

13 middle distances runners – both girls and young men took part in further research. Participants of experiment were well – trained athletes of a level from the second adult category (II c.) up to candidates master of sports (CMS). Proceeding from the initially received data it is possible to see a certain tendency (picture 1, 2).

Picture 1. Individual anaerobic and aerobic abilities of middle distances runners (young men)

Picture 2. Individual anaerobic and aerobic abilities of middle distances runners (girls)

As you can see at the picture, runners specializing in 1500 meters run of the first category both young men and girls surpass in aerobic and anaerobic abilities, abilities of 800 meters runners of the same category. The difference of aerobic abilities and in a smaller degree of anaerobic abilities is appreciably visible. Results of 1500 meters runners considerably approached the specification of the candidate master of sports.

Results of 800 meters runners are on the border of second and first categories. Therefore anaerobic abilities of 1500 meters runners surpass results of 800 meters runners.

Picture 3. Individual anaerobic and aerobic abilities on 800 meters runners (young man)

Picture 4. Individual anaerobic and aerobic abilities on 800 meters runners (girls)

If we analyse aerobic and anaerobic abilities of 800 meters runners it is possible to say, that the result is better of those athletes who have rather higher anaerobic abilities as compared to aerobic, in spite of the fact that these athletes have identical qualifying category. Thus, the runners having advantage in anaerobic abilities will execute the following normative category faster.

Conclusions. Proceeding from above-stated it is possible to assume, that development of aerobic abilities, to the greater degree and anaerobic to the less one is typical for 1500 meters runners. While for 800 meters runners anaerobic data should be prevailing and aerobic accompanying.

The literature:

1.L. Ya.-G. Shahlina – Medical-biological bases of sports training. / Kiev, «Naukova dumka», 2001 year.

2.Wilmore, J. H., Costill, D. L. – Physiology of sports and impellent (motion) activity. / Kiev, –Olimpiyskaya literatura‖, 1997 year. (translation) Human Kineties Publishers. – 1994.

3. IAAF New Studi es in Athletics No 3 – 2003 R. Duffield, B. Dawson.

Olesya Kolesnik

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