The attitude of teenagers to the health
Introduction. The concept “the attitude to health” is difficult and complex; includes some components: cognitive (ideas, opinions, knowledge, belief), emotional (feelings, emotions, values), behavioural (actions and activity). The attitude to health is one of the major components of system of values of the person. The attitude of the separate person to health can be characterized by the following parameters: an estimation (self-estimation) of health, medical knowledge (knowledge in sphere of health), valuable installations concerning health, activity of the person on preservation of the health (including physical activity) .
The purpose of research – studying of the psychological and pedagogical characteristics determining the attitude of teenagers to the health. Methods of research. Studying of the attitude of teenagers to the health was carried out within the framework of the international scientific program –Health Behaviour in School-aged Children‖. Research was characterized by mass sociological interrogation; thus specially developed questionnaire which included some blocks of questions (a feed, physical activity, positive health, culture of family, culture of contemporary, the behavioural risk, harmful habits, sexual behaviour) was used. Research was carried out on the basis of comprehensive schools of Ekaterinburg, Chelyabinsk, Tyumen (Russian Federation) and Kostanay (Republic Kazakhstan). In total in research have taken part about 3000 teenagers.
Results of research and their discussion. During research the analysis of the parameters describing the attitude of modern teenagers to the health is executed. In particular the following is established. Estimation (self-estimation) teenagers of the health. The attitude of the person to the health is caused by objective and subjective factors and shown in actions, acts, expressed by opinions and judgements concerning the reasons influencing its physical and mental well-being .
The attitude of the person to health includes value judgment or a self-estimation the person of the physical and mental condition. It is established, that parameters of self-estimations of health at girls and are essentially lower than girls, than at boys and young men of the same age. Parameters of self-estimations of physical readiness and a level of knowledge in the field of physical training at girls and also are lower than girls, than at boys and young men of the same age.
Medical knowledge of teenagers. The behaviour of teenagers in sphere of health is appreciably connected to a level of their medical knowledge. As a whole for the Russian teenagers lower level of parameters of medical knowledge is characteristic in comparison with their foreign contemporary; for boys and young men lower level of medical knowledge, than for girls and girls of the same age is characteristic. It will be coordinated to results of research of experts of Institute of sociology of the Russian Academy of Science [2, 3]. Studying of a level of medical knowledge of teenagers it was made on the basis of the analysis of the parameters describing the attitude of learning tenth classes to the use of drugs. Results of the carried out research testify to presence of negative installations at teenagers on questions of the use of drugs.
Valuable installations of teenagers concerning health. Results early the carried out researches testify that in system of vital values of the individual health as base value takes the third – fourth place after –material welfare‖, –reception of work‖, –creation of family‖. It is necessary to note especially, that high enough rating in structure of vital values occupies health because, being the qualitative characteristic of the person, it promotes achievement of many other purposes and satisfaction of various requirements of the person. Studying of valuable installations of teenagers in relation to health allows to ascertain, that for modern schoolboys value of health keeps the tool character. In other words, in modern social and economic conditions health is examined by a significant part of teenagers, as a unique resource of achievement of other vital purposes. All this in the greater degree makes health of modern teenagers –by object for operation‖.
Activity of teenagers on preservation of the health. A self-estimation the individual of the health and valuable installations concerning health cause corresponding behaviour. In a context of health of teenagers the role of physical activity is great. It speaks, first of all, that physical activity is the major component of health lifestyle, and concept –physical activity‖ in the big degree reflects socially motivated attitude of the person to physical training and the health, assumes realization of purposeful activity with the purpose of achievement of physical health .
During research it is established, that the level of physical activity of teenagers as a whole can be estimated as insufficient. Distinctions in a level of physical activity of the teenagers, caused are revealed by a self-estimation of health. It is established, that the above a self-estimation by teenagers of the health, the above a level of their physical activity, is more often they are engaged in that physical exercises with achievement of training effect. One of principal causes of these distinctions consists in features of motivation of teenagers to occupations by physical exercises. Conclusion. The analysis of results of the executed research testifies to complexity of an investigated social phenomenon –the attitude of teenagers to health‖ and necessities of carrying out of the further researches directed on revealing and specification of factors, promoting formation at teenagers of the positive attitude to the health.
1. Balsevich, V.K. Ontokineziologija of the Person / V.K.Balsevich. – M.: Publishing House –The Theory and Practice of Physical Culture‖, 2000. – 275 p.
2. Zhuravlyova, I.V. Health of Teenagers: the Sociological Analysis / I.V.Zhuravleva. – M.: Publishing House of Institute of Sociology of the Russian Academy of Science, 2002. – 240 p.
3. Zhuravlyova, I.V. The Attitude to Health of the Individual and a Society / I.V.Zhuravleva. – M.: The Science, 2006. – 238 p.
A.S. Byikova, V.N. Pidukov, A.I. Fyodorov
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